Bagan: Ancient Capital of Myanmar


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The Nineteen Villages of Bagan

(1) Nagabo
Nagabo is situated at E 94.8757 N 21.1767 and is now a palimpsest of Bagan era and later buildings, located to the east and southeast of modern Taungbi village.

(2) Nagakyit
Nagakyit is situated at E 94.8946 N 21.1929 and was located between the Wetkyi-in stream and the Shwezigon Pagoda, according to an inscription in the Shwezigon that mentions a village called Naga Kyitmaw.

(3) Anurada or Myinkaba
Anurada is situated at E 94.8654 N 21.1552 and is today called Myinkaba, and is the only Pali name found among the nineteen villages.

(4) Ywasaik
Ywasaik is situated at E 94.8918 N 21.15 and is estimated to have been near the modern villages of east and west Phaw Saw. The "third palace", said to have been founded by King Thike-tine-min in 514 AD, is believed to have been located here on the perimeter of the Bagan archaeological zone.

(5) Nyaung U
Nyaung-U is situated at E 94.9101 N 21.2011 and it is a modern market town and administrative centre, retains its archaic name. Housing developments in the area make new archaeological discoveries difficult, though open excavations from construction work remain potential sources of information.

(6) Kyaussaga
Kyaussaga is situated at E 94.8681 N 21.1277 and, it is east of the present day Thiripyitsaya village, is south of New Bagan and on the southern bank of Ye-O-Zin stream. Thiripyitsaya is said to have been the second capital, located near the Lawkananda pagoda, a riverside structure that prominently marks the southern extent of the city.

Kyinlo is situated at E 94.9133 N 21.0792 and is a site in a cultivated field east of Kinka on the
Bagan-Chauk road, and north of Kyaukkan.

(8) Taungba
Taungba is situated at E 94.9656 N 21.1259 and is a village near the road between Nyaung-U and Kyaukpadaung, within view of the Tooth Relic Pagoda on Tuyin Mountain. It was relocated in modern times due to highway construction. There are several sites of historic and archaeological significance. The Phaya Hti Saung or Hti Ta Hsaung pagoda, located one kilometre northwest of Taungba village, is reputed to enshrine bodily relics of the medieval monk, Shin Arahan, who is credited with being mentor to King Anawrahta.

(9) Yonhlut
Yonhlut is situated at E 94.9647 N 21.1133, also known as Yon Hlut Kyun, is a name that has
been variously translated as Free Rabbit Island, Free Animal Forest, A Jungle Where Rabbits Were Set Free, or The Place of the Hare's Release. To confuse matters, an island in the Ayeyarwady River opposite Bagan is also called Yon Hlut Kyun, although its claim to historical status barely goes back 50 years.

(10) Myegedwin
Myegedwin is situated at E 95.0024 N 21.1337. The present village of Mye-thindwin is only
150 years old, but the area is claimed in local folklore to have been the birthplace of Bagan's first king, Thamuddarit.

(11) Zi-o
Zi-o is situated at E 95.0411 N 21.1087. Numerous abandoned furnaces for smelting iron have been located near this village. The unrestored Gu Gyaung pagoda complex near Mye-thindwin
features a stupa on the western side of a small temple There is also a brick foundation of a third structure, eight by ten metres.

(12) Kokko
Kokko is situated at E 95.0195 N 21.0989 and was abandoned, according to local records, in 1878 and families transferred to neighbouring villages, including Mye-thindwin. Locals believe
that Myin-kwe-min, said to have become king at Bagan in AD 716, was the son of a wealthy man from Kokko. On an unexcavated mound of potsherds up to two metres high, remains from the Bagan and Ava periods have been recovered.

(13) Kokkethein
Kokkethein is situated at E 95.06267 N 21.03181 and is claimed by the people of Panidwin to be the original name of their village. It is one of several villages in the eastern hinterland of Bagan with a substantial presence of old furnaces for extracting iron from natural iron nodules in the soil.

(14) Tuti
Tuti is situated at E 95.0163 N 20.9850, modern Suti, has at least three fields nearby which contain old potsherds. A hint of antiquity is contained in the name of the village monastery, Than-bo or "iron smelting". There are old iron furnaces nearby, and local people report digging up bronze bowls with lids.

(15) Nyaungwun
Nyaungwun is situated at E 94.9905 N 20.9597, the present Tetma village, is near the southernmost tip of the Tuyin mountain range. Its older name was Nyaung Bin or Banyan Tree village, on account of big banyan trees that once surrounded it. Around the village are old and ruined furnaces for smelting iron.

(16) Ywamon
Ywamon is situated at E 95.0707 N 21.2861 and is an abandoned settlement known today as
Shwetaung Ywahmine, near Letpanchibaw.

(17) Letpanchibaw
Letpanchibaw is situated at E 95.0627 N 21.2828. It is an excavation site where artifacts found included potsherds, domestic utensils, stone and bronze weapons, beads, ear plugs and stone rings.

(18) Onmya
Onmya situated at E 94.8675 N 20.9065.

(19) Singu
Singu is situated at E94.8675 N 20.9065 are in the canonical list of nineteen villages.


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